An unstable shoulder requires surgery in cases where there is a repercussion in daily life (dressing, driving, sleep etc …) and / or in case of impossibility to resume sports activities despite medical treatment (rehabilitation) .

Several surgical techniques exist, their indications vary according to the patients (age, symptoms, practiced sport and level, hyperlaxity) and observed lesions:


‘Restorative’ Surgery (Bipolar Locking)

Against absolute indications:

Loss of bone substance on the significant glenoid
HAGL lesion (the lesion is on the humeral side and not the glenoid)

Against relative indications (according to practice of the surgeon)

Severe hyperlaxity of the shoulders (we repair very fragile fabrics …)

Type of sport (contact) and level of practice (competition)

large humeral notch (although posterior locking has improved their management)

Severe omarthrosis

‘Palliative’ Surgery (Shoulder Stop)

Against ‘absolute’ indications:

Bone fragility (holding the abutment by the screws) or difficulties in bone healing (age of the patient)

No real relative contraindications …

but would more favor the maintenance of micro-movements in the shoulder at the origin of osteoarthritis (not proved) … and modifies the normal anatomy of the shoulder

hyperlaxity remains a risky terrain even after an isolated abutment …


The future probably lies in mixed or composite surgical techniques (abutment with repair such as posterior or bipolar locking …).